Glossary Notes

MARITIME TERMS

This is not a comprehensive list, it is mainly applicable to the shipwreck incidents and old texts.  See also:

The Oxford Companion to Ships & the Sea, Oxford University Press, London, 1976.
A New Universal Dictionary of the Marine, London, 1815.
A Dictionary of Sailing, by F. H. Burgess, Penguin Reference Books, 1961.
A Sea of Words, Third Ed, by Dean King, An Owl Book, Henry Holt and Company, ISBN 0-8050-6615-2.


ABACK - The situation of the sails of a square rigged ship when the yards are trimmed/turned to bring the wind to bear on the front of the sail, this acts like a break.

ABAFT - Towards the stern - e.g. abaft the main mast.

ABATE - A wind is said to abate when its force lessens.

ABEAM - At right angles to the fore-and after line, i.e. in line with the beams.

ABREAST - In line abeam on a parallel course with bows all in line.  Side by side in a direction at right angles with the keel.

ACCOMMODATION - The old term for a cabin fitted out for the use of passengers.

AFT - To the rear, toward, or at the stern of the vessel.

ALOFT - Anywhere about the upper yards, masts and rigging of a ship i.e. above or overhead.

ANCHOR STOCK - The horizontal crosspiece of an Admiralty pattern anchor.  This is set at right angles to the arm of the anchor so that when hitting the bottom it will turn the anchor to bring the arms vertical, thus enabling the anchor flukes to bit into the ground.

ANKER - Six and a half gallons.  Most of the smuggling barrels were half ankers.

APOTHECARY - Archaic word for chemist.

ASTERN - Behind, Backwards.

ATHWART - Running across, from side to side.

AWEIGH - Weigh means to heave, hoist or raise.  The anchor is 'aweigh' when raised from the seabed and stored in position.

BACK - Wind is said 'back' when it changes contrary to its normal pattern.  In the northern hemisphere, north of the trade wind belt, the wind normally changes clockwise from north through east, south, and west.  When the change is anti-clockwise, the wind is backing.  The reverse takes place in the southern hemisphere.  To 'back' a square sail is to turn the sail into the wind to slow the ship down.

BACKSTAY (BREST & AFTER BACKSTAYS) - Long ropes extending from the topmast head to the chains on either side of the ship.

BARGE - A small seagoing vessel with sails or a flat bottomed freight-boat or lighters for canals, river and harbours or a ceremonial vessel of state propelled by oars or an ornamental houseboat or a small boat used for the conveyance of officers, usually those of warships.

BARQUE (BARK) - Up to the mid 19th century these were small sailing ships. Generally medium-size sailing vessels or ocean-going sailing vessels of a particular rig, i.e. with the aftermost mast fore-and aft rigged and the other masts square rigged.

BARQUENTINES - Generally medium-size sailing vessels or ocean-going sailing vessels of a particular rig, i.e. with the aftermost mast fore-and aft rigged and the other masts square rigged.

BALLAST - Weight added to the hold of a ship e.g. iron pigs, loose sand/gravel.  Often added even when there was cargo present the ensure the correct sailing performance from the vessel.

BATTLESHIP - Warship of the most heavily armed and armoured class, of sufficient size to take part in a main attack.

BEAKHEAD - A small platform at the fore part of the upper deck; the part of a ship forward of the forecastle, fastened to the stem and supported by the main knee.  The sailor's lavatories were located here.  See also 'heads'.

BEAM ENDS - When the ship is on its beam ends the deck beams are almost vertical i.e. unless righted could capsize.

BEAR UP - BEAR AWAY - Put the tiller up and keep farther away from the wind.

BEAR DOWN - Approach anything from windward.

BEAR OFF - Move away from.

BEFORE THE MAST - Crew taken on as seamen were housed in the forecastle (bow) i.e. in front of the mast.  Officers were housed in the stern.

BEFORE THE WIND - Sailing in the same direction as the wind.

BEND (BENT) - A knot or hitch used to join two ropes.

BENGAL - A province of Hindustan, India that includes the delta of the River Ganges.

BILGE - Lowest point inside the hull of a ship.  This is where any water will collect.

BILLOWS - A large sea wave.  Swelling or surging mass.

BITTED - To secure the cables, ropes and anchor.

BLUE LIGHT - These lights were hung high in the masts to facilitate ships staying together at night.

BLUFF - Confident attitude.  May be some exaggeration.

BOOM - A long spar run out from different places in the ship to extend the foot of a particular sail, such as the jib boom.

BOSUN - The abbreviation for BOATSWAIN, the officer or seaman responsible for the supervision and maintenance of a ship's boats, sails, rigging, cordage etc.

BOTTOM (Same bottom) - Term used by the East India Company who allowed ship owners to rebuild their ships when worn out.

BOW - Front of the ship.

BOWER ANCHOR - The main anchor of the vessel, used with chain cable.

BOWSPRIT - Mast like protrusion (almost horizontal) attached to the bow.

BRAIL - Ropes leading from the leech (outer edge of a square sail) on both sides of a fore-and-aft, loose-footed sail and through pulley blocks secured on the wooden mast hoops which slid up or down the mast.

BREECH LOADER - Artillery gun/cannon loaded from the rear.  Consisting of an open backed barrel and a separate chamber which held the charge.  Early breech loaders were not very efficient because it was difficult to secure the two pieces and maintain a good seal.

BRIG - Two-masted square-rigged [1] vessels with an additional lower fore-and aft sail on a gaff and a boom to the mainmast, can be a shortened form of brigantine.

BRIGANTINE - Small vessels equipped for both sailing and rowing (often used for piracy, espionage etc) or two-masted vessels with a square-rigged foremast and fore-and aft rigged mainmast.

BROADSIDE - Side of the vessel; simultaneous firing of all guns on one side of the vessel.

BULKHEAD - Vertical partition (wall) between decks.

BULWARKS - The planking or woodwork, along the sides of a ship, above the upper deck to prevent seas washing over the gunwales and also acting as a guard rail so that persons on board would not fall over the side or be washed over board in rough weather.

BUOY - A floating marker used at sea.  Most are navigational, but they are often used to mark submerged objects.

BURTHEN or BERTHEN - See Tonnage.  In the Dalmedia Narrative this may be a spelling error?

CABLE - Thick heavy rope; also a unit of length.

CALIBRE or BORE OF A SMALL GUN - This was measured by the number of lead balls in a pound a gun fired.  The higher the number the smaller the calibre; for example a gun of 24 calibre (each shot weighing one twenty forth of a pound) was smaller than a 12 calibre gun where the balls weigh one twelfth on a pound.

CANTON - The area of a flag in the top left-hand corner.

CAPSTAND - A piece of a mechanism for heaving up the anchor and other uses which require a larger purchase.

CARBINE - Early versions were called Arquebus.  Barrel length 18 to 30 inches, calibre about 16.  Used by the light infantry, dragoons on horseback and by troops who fought in restricted spaces such as the marines on board ships.

CARRONADE - A short fat gun invented in 1770 and manufactured by the Carron Company of Scotland.  Favoured by merchant and later used by the Navy.

CAT - Mechanical device, made up of ropes and pulleys, used to hoist an anchor OR short for 'cat o' nine tails'.

CAT HEAD - A piece of heavy timber, securely fastened to the bulwark on the outside of each side of the bow, to which the top of the anchor is slung, attached to the cat.  It permitted the anchor to swing free of the hull of the ship when in use.

CAULKING - The operation of driving with a 'caulking iron' oakum or rope junk into the seams of the ship's planks to render them waterproof.  See also re-caulking.

CHAIN PLATE - The metal fittings secured to the sides of the ship, to which the shrouds are set up.

CHAIN PUMP - The main pump, driven by chain, used to remove water from the bilge.

CHASSE-MAREČ - Generally French coasting luggers, often used for smuggling or privateering.

CLEW or CLUE - A lower corner of a square sail or the aftermost corner of a fore-and aft sail, to which tacks and sheets are made fast for extending the sail and for holding it to the lower yard or boom.  To clew up is to draw a sail's lower ends up to the yard or the mast in preparation for furling.

CLINKER BUILT - A method of building the hull of a boat in which the lower edge of each side plank overlaps the upper edge of the one below.  Normally only used on smaller boats because this type of construction causes added friction when the boat progresses through the water.

COMMODORE - Senior Ship's Captain/Commander of the East India Company fleet within the convoy.

COPPERS - Large copper vessels, built into brick ovens, used to cook the meals.

CORDAGE - The general term embracing all ropes made from vegetable fibres.

COUNTRY SHIPS - Term used to describe ships which traded between the Eastern ports frequented by the East India Company.

CUDDY - In a large sailing ship, a small cabin under the poop deck in which the officers took their meals.

CUT THE MAST - Under severe weather conditions, or when the vessel was on its beam ends it was sometimes necessary to cut the upper masts and let them go over the side.  The process did not normally involve cutting the mast itself, but cutting or disengaging the shrouds and stays that held the upper masts in place.

CUTTER - A small decked ship with one mast and a bowsprit, which was light in the water and fast.  Used for coastal work and messenger service between ships in a large fleet/convoy.

DEVILS - The name given to iron nails/fastenings which had copper heads.  These were used to deceive the purchaser of the vessel who would have specified the use of 100% copper fastenings.

DOGGER - A development of the original ketch, square rigged on the main and carrying a lugsail on the mizzen, with two jibs on a long bowsprit.  Short, wide-beamed, and small, named after fishing craft using the Dogger Bank, North Sea.  In the mid seventeenth century they were increasing in size to well over 50 tons.  BACK to Shaftsbury.

DOLDRUMS - Windless areas/zones.  A state of lifelessness or low spirits.

DOUBLING - A return journey.

DOWNS (place name) - Off the coast of Kent.

DRIVE (DROVE being the past tense) - To drive a ship is to carry too much sail.  Vessels are said to be 'driving' when running before a strong wind.  The wind will 'drive the vessel' during a gale.

DYSENTERY - Disease of the intestine caused by bacteria or amoebae normally from the poor water supplied to ships.

EBB - The flow of the tidal stream as it recedes from the ending of the period of slack water at high tide to the start of the period of slack water at low tide, about 6 hours.

ENSIGN - Any flag, standard or banner.  A commissioned officer of the lowest rank.

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FACTORS - Agents

FALSE KEEL - An additional keel, secured outside the main one, intended to protect the main keel in case of grounding.  Sometimes used to improve the sailing qualities.

FATHOM - Equivalent to 6 feet.

FLAT - A broad flat-bottomed boat. Like a Dorset 'Trow'.  Not generally used in the sea due to lack of a deep keel.

FLUKE - The triangular shape at the end of each arm of an anchor immediately below the point (bill).  Once the point penetrates the ground when any strain or pull comes into play it gives the anchor its holding power.

FORE-AND-AFT RIG - The arrangement of sails in a sailing vessel so that the luffs of the sails abut the masts or are attached to stays, the sails except in the case of jibs and staysails being extended by a boom.

FORECASTLE (pronounced 'folksil') - The raised deck at the bow of the vessel and the living quarters below it.

FOREMAST - The forward mast of any ship having two or more masts.

FORETOPMAST - The mast next above the foremast.  The one above this is the foretopgallentmast.

FOUNDERING - About to founder, i.e. to go to the bottom.  Fill with water and sink.

FORE - Forward.

FORESAIL - The lowest square sail on the foremast of a ship, bark or brig.

FOURTH RATE - Naval ships were rated from 1 to 6 depending on the number of guns.  At this period circa 1800 a 'fourth rate' would have between 50 and 70 guns.

FRIGATE - A light swift vessel powered by oar or sail or a fast-sailing merchantman or a sailing warship carrying 28-60 guns or a general purpose warship with mixed armament usually lighter than a destroyer, designed for convoy work.

FURL - Roll, gather, or make up any sail, awning, canvas etc.

FURLONG - One eight of a mile.

FUTTOCKS - Separate pieces of timber used to build up structures like the frames of ships.

GAFF - A spar to which the head of a fore and aft main sail is bent.  The gaff topsail is a triangular sail with the head extended on a 'gaff' which is set from, or hoisted on a topmast;  it is clewed out to the peak of the main gaff.

GALLANT, (TOPGALLANT) - Name of a sail.  The sail set on the topgallant yard in square-rigged ships, next above the topsail, and normally the third sail in ascending order from the deck. In those vessels which set two topsails it was obviously the fourth.  Main topgallant was obviously on the main mast.

GALLIOT - Small Dutch trading vessel, the hull built barge fashion with a bluff rounded bow, fitted with leeboards, and fore and aft rigged on a single mast, often with a sprit.

GIG -  A light narrow boat built for speed, with oars and short masts for lug or lateen sails.

GREAT COAT - A heavy overcoat.

GROG - A mixture of one part rum to three parts water, the standard daily drink of the era of the Halsewell and Earl of Abergavenny.

GRYLLS, THOMAS - The Thomas Grylls Act of July, 1808. Thomas was a local solicitor of Porthleven, he drafted the act which sets out the procedures regarding burial of bodies cast up by the sea.  All bodies cast ashore must be recorded and given a Christian burial in consecrated ground.  This was regardless of race, creed or colour.

GUM BENJAMIN - A balsamic resin, an exudation obtained by piercing the bark from certain tropical trees of the genus Styrax.  Used in perfumery and medicine.  In medicine as an antiseptic and stimulant.   Modern name Benzoin.

GUN DECK - Deck housing the main guns.

GUNWALE (pronounced 'gunnel') - A planked wall or balustrade along the sides of a vessel on either side of the waist.

HANK - A small ring or hoop of metal by which the luff of a jib or staysail is bent (attached) to the stays of a sailing vessel.

HAWSE - In the bow of the vessel where the hawseholes are cut into the bow.

HAWSE PLUGSHAWSE BAGS  - A 'jackass' which is a bag or plug to prevent water entering the hawse pipe.

HAWSEHOLES - Reinforced holes through which the anchor cables pass.

HAWSER - A very heavy (thick) cable used to secure to the anchor or the vessel to a wharf/mooring.

HEAD - Carved figurehead of the vessel.  General reference to bow area. 'Heads' toilet area.

HELM - From where the vessel is steered i.e. the tiller or ship's wheel.

HEN COOP - Large ships carried live farm animals on their decks.  Hen coups or cages would often float free when the ship sank.

HOG - A ship is said to 'hog' when the bow and stern droop and the keel and bottom arch upward.

HOGSHEAD - A large cask for liquids, especially one of a definite size (capacity) that varied for different liquids and commodities and in different localities.  Approx 50 gallons. Approx 476 lbs of fish.  Approx 3000 mackerel or pilchards.

HOLD - Large compartment below decks which was used to store the cargo.

HOOGLI or HOOGHLY RIVER - The most westerly and most important channel of the Ganges River, leading to Calcutta, India founded by the English in c. 1690.

HOY - Small vessel, rigged as a sloop, used for coastal traffic and for ferrying stores from shore to vessels in port.

HOUSE - The House referred to by the log of the Halsewell is probably the Mast House at Blackwall, where the East Indiamen docked.  Ship's positions are identified by giving her distance and bearing from a prominent landmark, such as a buoy off the Mast House.

IMPRESS - To be forced into service with the British Army or Navy during wartime.  At the time of the Halsewell it was estimated that half of the men in the Royal Navy were impressed.  By  1804 when the Earl of Abergavenny was about to start it's fifth voyage the number my have been as high as 75%.

'IN THE ROOM OF' - A term used in the East India Company to mean that a new ship could be built because a previous ship in use by the Company had been sold, worn out or wrecked.

JACKASS - A hawse bag, canvas bag filled with oakum used to plug the hawse-holes to keep out the sea water.

JIB - (jibber?) A triangular headsail that stretches from the outer end of the jib boom to the fore topmast head in large ships.

JIB BOOM - A continuation of the bowsprit in large ships by means of a spar run forward to extend the foot the jib sail(s).

JOHN COMPANY - The East India Company's nickname in the later years.  It was known in India as 'Jehan Kumpani' meaning 'World Company'.

JOLLY BOAT - A small clinker-built boat propelled by up to three pairs of oars which could readily be launched from the ship for general purpose duties.  The name 'jolly' may be derived from the German or Dutch word 'jolle' meaning 'small boat'.

JOURNAL - Daily record of happenings on board ship.

JURY (as in jury masts) - A temporary mast put up in place of one that has been broken or carried away, e.g. jury foremast, jury mainmast.

KEDGE - Smallest of the anchors.  Used in mooring to keep the vessel steady and clear of her bower anchor while in harbours and rivers, particularly at the turn of the tide.  Also used to move the vessel in harbours by dropping the anchor from a smaller boat in the desired position and pulling the vessel to the anchor using a rope and windless.

KEEL - The principal piece of timber in a ship (backbone), usually first laid on the blocks in building, to which the stem, sternpost, and ribs are attached.

KEELSON - An internal keel in the form of a stringer bolted to the keel to provide additional strength and support for the floors.

KETCH - Two-masted, fore-and-aft rigged sailing vessels in which the mizzen.  Mast is shorter than the mainmast and stepped forward of the rudder post. Ketches were especially used for coastal trading.

KINTLEDGE - Ballast, usually blocks of iron laid in the bottom of the ship.  The amount used depended on the weight of the cargo.

KNEE - A piece of timber shaped in a right angle, often naturally so, that in used to secure parts of a ship together, especially to connect the beams and the timbers.  A hanging knee lies beneath and supports the ends of the deck beams; a lodging knee fastens the forward side of a ship's beam to the ship's side; and a bosom knee the after side of the beam to the ship's side.  In the Halsewell the knees were wood.  In the Earl of Abergavenny the knees were made of iron because by 1797 when she was built there was a great shortage of available wood of the correct shape and quality.

KNOT - A piece of knotted string fastened to the log-line, one of a series fixed at such intervals (every 47 feet 3 inches) that the number of them that run out while a 28-second sand-glass is running indicates the ship's speed in nautical miles per hour, or 'knot's'.

LABOURING - Pitching and rolling in heavy seas.

LADING - A vessel's cargo.

LARBOARD - The name circa 1800 meaning portside.

LASCAR - A sailor from the East.  The East India Company would only allow them to crew on inward bound vessels.  They were returned to the East as passengers.

LASHINGS - Ropes used to secure movable items on board the vessel.

LEAD (hand lead) - A weight of seven to ten pounds attached to the lead line of approximately twenty fathoms to measure depth.  'Casting the lead' was the act of ascertaining the depth.

LEAGUE - Three nautical miles, which is one twentieth part of a degree of a great circle.

LEEBOARD - Early type of drop keel, pivoted at its forward point on each side of a flat bottomed or shallow draft vessel.

LEEWARD - The direction in which the wind blows.  Down wind.  'Lee' shore is down wind of the vessel.  'Leeway' making sure a vessel is not too close to a lee shore.

LIMBERS - Holes cut into the floor timbers of wooden ships on either side of the keelson to allow the free passage for the bilge water to run down to the pump(s) well(s).

LINER - A vessel belonging to a line of passenger ships.

LIFTS - Hemp ropes which are led from the various mastheads to the two ends of the corresponding yards to support them.

LIGHTER - A vessel with no means of propulsion.  Like a barge and towed by a tug.

LIGNUM VITAE - A very hard wood of the guaiacum tree, grown in the West Indies.  Used for amongst other things for blocks and pulley sheaves because of its strength and natural lubrication.

LINOIS, Charles Alexandre Leon Durand, comte de (1761 to 1848) - French admiral who engaged an East India Convoy at Pulo Auro in February 1804.  He retreated.  The Earl of Abergavenny was in the Convoy along with Exeter, Captain Henry Meriton who survived the wreck of the Halsewell.

LONG BOAT - The largest boat belonging to a sailing ship, carvel-built with high sides, capable of carrying a ship's gun in the bows and fitted with a mast and sails for short journeys.  Used primarily for provisioning, for transporting water casks for refilling, and as a lifeboat.

LUFF - The leading edge of a fore-and aft-sail.

LUGGER - A sailing vessel with a 'lugsail rig'[2] , normally two masted except when they were used for smuggling or as privateers, when a mizen was stepped right aft.  The 'lug rig' came in during the late 17th, early 18th century for coastal use.  See also Chasse-mareé.

MADEIRA WINE - Fortified wine, often taken on a round trip to China to improve its flavour.  (Morse, Hosea B., Chronicles of the East India Company trading to China, Vol. II, p29.  Clarendon Press, 1926.)

MAINMAST - A vessel's principle mast, in a three masted ship, the centre mast.

MAINSAIL - A vessel's principle sail.  On a square rigged ship, the lowest and largest sail on the mainmast.

MAIN-TOPGALLANT - Mainmast sail (see Topgallant).

MAST - A vertical pole to carry a vessel's sails that descends to the keelson, where its squared heel is stepped.  Originally the mast was built from the trunk of a single fir tree.  As ships grew in size circa the time of the Halsewell, masts had to be extended and broadened to carry more sail.  To add girth and strength, the lower mast was fashioned from more than one timber (known as a made mast), while topmasts and topgallent masts (usually single-trunk or pole masts) were added above.

MASTER - Another name for the captain of a merchant ship.  Prior to circa 1814 it was the officer in a warship responsible for the navigation.

MEN OF WAR - Sometimes ships of the lineSquare-rigged vessels equipped for warfare and belonging to the recognised navy of a country.

First-raters, vessels mounting 100 or more cannon ranging from 12-pounders to 32-pounders. Measuring over 61m (200ft) on the lower gun deck they were generally crewed by 875 officers and men.  None are recorded lost in Scilly.

Second-raters, vessels carrying 90 to 98 cannon on three gun decks. The lowest one of which was 59m (195 ft) long. Manned by 750 to 800 men. The Association, a flagship of the line, was a second-rater.

Third-raters, this ship of the line came in several sizes from 80-gun three deckers to 64-gun two deckers. Manned by 490 to 720 men.

Fourth-raters, vessels 45m (150ft) in length with two gun decks, mounting between 50 and 56 guns. Crewed by 350 officers and men. Their main role was as flagships of cruiser squadrons serving overseas.

Fifth-raters, frigates, 45m (150ft) in length, with a crew of 250 and a single gun deck, used for scouting ahead of the fleet for contact with the enemy. Mounting 32-40 guns on a single deck.

Sixth-raters, nimble sloops and brigs, 38m (125ft) long with a crew of about 195. Their speed and manoeuvrability made them useful escort and courier vessels.

MERCHANTMEN - A generic term used to describe ships carrying merchandise or a vessel of the merchant marine.

MESS - A place where service personnel/sailors eat or take recreation.

MIDSHIPMAN - A non-commissioned rank. At this period it applies to the younger sons of the nobility and gentry who with a 'letter of service' were, like modern apprentices, placed in the care of the Captain to eventually become the next generation of naval officers.

MINERVA - Roman goddess of wisdom.

MIZZEN (MIZEN) - The name of the third, aftermost, mast of a square-rigged sailing ship or a three masted schooner.  The fore-and-aft sail hoisted on the mizzen-mast in a large sailing vessel; it is also called the 'spanker' or driver', but never referred to as a mizzensail.

MORTAR - Very short gun firing large (often hollow) projectiles.  Very inaccurate, used in sieges.

MOTHER BANK or MOTHERBANK - An area off the north coast of the Isle of Wight, to the west of Spithead, Southern England.

MUSKET - Large rifle.  Early versions were very heavy with a 5 foot barrel.  Later versions were lighter,  had a shorter barrel and a calibre of about 12.  See Armament.

MUSKETOON or BLUNDERBUSS - Wide-mouthed short barrelled gun, firing grape shot.  It was used on board ships and coaches.  Several have been recovered from the Halsewell wreck site.

MUZZLE - Mouth of a gun.

MUZZLE LOADER - A gun (normally a cannon) loaded at the muzzle.  More efficient than early breech loaded cannons.

NORE - The Nore was an important anchorage in the western part of the Thames Estuary taking its name from a sandbank 3 miles NE of Sheerness and 47 miles East of London Bridge.  In 1781, the old 4th rate Conquestador was permanently moored at the Nore as a receiving ship:  new recruits or impressed men, such as those from the Halsewell & Earl of Abergavenny would be accommodated there until they were drafted to seagoing ships.

ORLOP-DECK - The lowest deck on the ship.  Used for cargo.

PAWL - (PAUL HEAD, CATCH PAUL) Parts of a mechanism which stops something like a Capstan or Winch from over running.  Sometimes sprung such that the mechanism will lock if reversed and may only turn one way.

PEAK - The upper , after corner of the four-sided fore-and-aft sail extended by a gaff. OR The bill or end of the palm of an anchor.

PETTY OFFICER - Naval equivalent of the Army 'Sergeant'.

PILOT - A person licensed to navigate ships through channels and fairways in and out of a port/ mooring area.

PILOT VESSEL - Self-explanatory generic term used to describe a vessel used by a pilot. These were exceptionally important to Scilly and here, these were generally gigs or cutters.  See NOTES

PINK - A small square-rigged ship with a narrow overhanging stern, often used for the carriage of masts.  In 15th and 16th centuries the name was loosely applied to small ships with narrow sterns, a fairly common design in that period.  Recorded as being used by the Danish Navy to describe a small warship in which the stern was broadened out at the upper deck level to accommodate quarter guns.  BACK to Shaftsbury.

PIPES - 'Forty dozen' bottles i.e. 480 bottles.

PISTOL - Small gun needing only one hand to fire it.  Barrel length 6 to 18 inches, calibre about 24.

POOP - A short, raised aftermost deck of a ship, above the quarter-deck, found only in very large sailing ships.

PORT - Left-hand side of the vessel.  In the Dalmeida reference it refers to the fact that the ship was not horizontal, but was leaning to the left.  This is still the situation with the wreck today.

PRESS GANG (IMPRESS SERVICE) - A group of men, commanded by an officer, who impress men for service in the British Navy or Army.

PRESS OF SAIL - The use of all the sail that can be carried by the vessel.

PREVENTATIVE SERVICE VESSEL - A generic term used to describe vessels used by the Preventative Service or Coast Guard to deter smugglers. These vessels were usually cutters or sloops.  Very relevant to the Isles of Scilly.  See NOTES.

PRIVATEER - A privately owned vessel armed with guns which operate in times of war against the trade of an enemy.  These vessels were approved off by the particular countries Government who would often take a share of any plunder. Not to be confused with 'Pirates' were basically just criminals and did not have the backing of their respective Government.

PUNT - (1) A small flat bottomed boat/craft, general purpose often used as a floating platform to work on a larger vessel, powered by paddles.  (2) A small wooden boat with sharp pointed bows and stern and low freeboard used by wild fowlers in estuaries powered by paddles.

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QUARTER - The side of a ship between the amidships and the stern.

QUARTERDECK - The portion of the upper deck of a vessel behind the main mast, usually raised above the level of the main deck but below the level of the poop deck.  The quarterdeck was largely the preserve of the captain and the commissioned officers, and was from there that warrant officers received orders and the captain commanded the ship.  Sailors/seamen only went on the quarterdeck to fulfil a specific duty, and it was standard procedure at this time for all on board to salute when ascending the ladder to this level of the vessel.

QUARTERMASTER - The petty officer appointed to assist the master of a ship and his mates normally in duties like stowing the hold and coiling cables.

RABBET - Basically a rebate, an incision in a piece of timber to receive the ends or sides of planks which are to be secured to it.  Rabbeted is the verb.

RANGED - (to range) Preparing the chains/ropes of the anchor on deck ready to anchor the ship.

RE-CAULKING - To replace oakum or rope that is forced between the seams of a ship's hull/deck planks to ensure there is no leakage.  Once in place the gap between the planks is further sealed with hot pitch to limit the oakum/rope from rotting.  See caulking.

RECONNOITRE - To survey or inspect.

REEFS - The amount of sail taken in by securing one set of reef points.  It is the means of shortening sail to the amount appropriate to an increase in the strength of wind.  In square rigged ships sails up to the topsails normally carried two rows of reef points, enabling two reefs to be taken in.

REEFED - Having reduced the sail area by folding, rolling, or tying up part of the sails.

RIBS - Another name for the frames of a boat/ship as they rise from the keel to form the shape of the hull.  The timbers of a vessel to which the inner and outer planking is secured.

RIDER (RYDER) - Timbers secured between the keelson of a wooden ship and the orlop beams to give additional strength to the hull

ROUND HOUSE - The 'round house' of a ship was commonly a square or rectangular cabin built on the quarter deck of East Indiamen or large passenger ships.  The term has nothing to do with 'round' in the sense of circular, but relates more closely to 'making the rounds', as it was possible to walk round the outside of the cabin.

SHEATHING - Basically a covering applied to the hull of a vessel to protect it from wood boring worms.  The most common and successful sheathing was copper introduced in the mid 18th century.

SCHOONER - A vessel rigged with for-and-aft sails on her two or more masts, and originally carried square topsails on the foremast, though later, with the advance in rig designs, these were changed to jib-headed or jackyard-topsails. Also described as small sea-going fore-and aft rigged vessels, originally with two masts, later often with three or four, the foremast being equal or smaller than the other masts.

SCUTTLE - Hatch cut into the ship's side/deck to let in air/light.  'Fore scuttle' would be at the front of the ship.

SCURVY - Disease caused by the deficiency of vitamin C.  It was very difficult to preserve fresh fruit and vegetables between the 16th and 19 centuries which would have prevented this disease on board ships.

SCYLLA & CHARYBDIS - The names of two navigation hazards in the Straits of Messina.  Named from Greek legend.  Scylla was a nymph who became a sea monster and enticed mariners to her rock on the Italian side of the Straits by singing lovely songs.  Charybdis was a dangerous whirlpool on the Sicilian side of the Straits.  i.e. a dodgy place for seamen!

SHALLOP - A sort of large boat with two masts, and usually rigged like a schooner

SHAMBLES - A bank of shingle, shell and sand off the Isle of Portland, Dorset, UK.

SHEET ANCHOR - A spare or a reserve anchor.

SHIPPED (UNSHIPPED) - Having received something on board ship.  To put a thing in its place.

SHROUDS - The standing rigging of a sailing vessel that gives a mast its lateral support.  'Stays' give fore-and-aft support.

SKIFF - A ship's working boat.  Small in size, clinker built with one or two pairs of oars.  Similar function to the 'jolly boat' but slightly smaller.

SLINGS - A rope or chain passed to anything for hoisting e.g. a large rope strop.

SLOOP - Small one-masted fore-and aft rigged vessels with a mainsail and jib or large open boats (long boats) or small sailing warships carrying guns on the upper deck only. It was the frequent custom at this time to speak of sloops as cruisers. The term is also used to describe one of the smaller classes of anti-submarine convoy escort vessels in the second world war.

SNOW - A snow was a vessel with three masts resembling the main and foremast of a ship with a third and small mast just abaft the mainmast, carrying a sail nearly similar to a ship's mizzen. The foot of this mast was fixed in a block of wood or step but on deck. The head was attached to the afterpart of the maintop. The sail was called a trysail, hence the mast was called a trysail-mast.

SMACK - Single masted fore-and-aft-rigged sailing vessels, usually employed for coasting or fishing.

SOUNDING - Measuring the depth of water.

SPANKER - Fore-and-aft sail set with a gaff and boom on the after side of the mizzenmast.

SPAR - A general term for any mast, yard, gaff pole or boom etc.

SPAR DECK - Probably means some form of temporary deck.  Anyway the deck that was used to store various bits pieces including the spare spars.

SPRIT - A long spar which stretches diagonally across a four sided fore-and-aft sail to  support the peak, as in the typical barge rig

SQUARE-RIGGED - Basically a ship with five square sails on each mast.  Sometimes the mainmast can have six sails, the extra being the 'skysail'.

SQUALL - A sudden gust of wind of considerable strength.

SQUARED - The position of the yards when they are at right angles to the fore-and-aft line of the ship.

STARBOARD - The right side of the vessel, viewed from the back (aft)

STAYS - The standing rigging of a sailing vessel that gives a mast its fore-and-aft support.

STAYSAIL - A triangular fore-and-aft sail that is set by being hanked to a stay.  They are set both in square-rigged and fore-and-aft rigged ships, and take their names from the stay on which they are set, e.g. fore staysail, fore topmast staysail etc. etc.

STEAMSHIP - Vessels propelled by steam, whether driven by paddles or screw propeller.

STEERAGE - Cheapest accommodation in the ship below deck.

STERN GALLERY - Gallery around the after part (back) of the ship.

STRINGER - Fore and aft members of a ship's hull structure.  Designed to strengthen the frames.

STRUCK - Past tense of STRIKE DOWN, the act of lowering a mast or yard.  Casks and guns are also 'struck down' when placed into the hold of a ship.

SUPERCARGO (SUPRACARGO) - An abbreviation of Cargo Superintendent, a representative of the ship's owner on board a merchant ship who looked after all commercial business in connection with the ship and her cargo during a voyage.

SUPERNUMERARY - Extra or Additional

TACK (To tack) - To go about, change direction.  Opposite to wearing.

TAKEN UP - Contracted for a voyage by the East India Company.

TANKER - Ships fitted with tanks for transporting oil or other fluids in bulk.

TARGET TUG - Sea vessels and aircraft used for towing targets used in shooting practice.

TARS - Affectionate name for a sailor, derived from when sailors coated their cloths with tar to make them waterproof.

TILLER - Wood or metal bar which fits into or round the head of a ship's rudder for steerage.

TONNAGE - This unless specified as displacement tonnage, is a measurement of space, not weight.  It derives from the 'tun', a cask which was a standard unit of cargo in medieval times, and provided the basis for calculating a vessel's cargo capacity.  The formula used for the calculation in the 1770's and 80's was laid down by Act of Parliament in 1773, and essentially consisted of multiplying the vessel's length (defined as along the rabbet of the keel from the fore side of the stem beneath the bowsprit to the after side of the stern post), minus three fifths of the maximum beam, by the maximum beam, and by half the maximum beam again, and dividing the product by 94.  Hence the Earl of Abergavenny's 1440 tons burthen & the Halsewell's 776 tons burthen represents a theoretical assessment of the quantity (not weight) of cargo that she would carry, for the purposes of taxation or other dues.

TOP - A platform at the masthead to which shrouds are attached to extend the topmast.

TOPGALLANT MAST - The mast in a square rigged ship stepped next above the topmast to form the third section of a complete mast, the uppermost of the three until the days when yet more sails, known as 'kites' were piled upon the top of this mast.  The topgallant sails were set on yards attached to this mast.

TORPEDO BOAT - A small fast lightly armed warship for carrying and discharging a torpedo or torpedoes. Post 1866.

TRAWLER - A type of fishing vessel, boats which fish with a trawl or drag net.

TREENAIL  (Sometimes 'Trenail', pronounced 'trennel') - Long cylindrical pins (dowels) of a hardwood like oak, used to secure the planks of a wooden ship's sides and bottom to the frames.  Holes were bored with an auger through the planks and into the timber frames; the treenails were driven home with a mallet.  These were then cut flush inside and outside the ship.  Small hardwood wedges were often driven in at each end laying at right angles to the run of the grain of the planking and frame to hold them in place and prevent them splitting.  They were 1 inch for every 100 feet of ship's length.  Those on the Abergavenny are 1½ inch and many of the heads of the treenails were facetted.

TROOP SHIP - Ships for transporting troops.  Could be any other type of vessel until seconded for this purpose. e.g a liner or merchantman.

TUG - Small, stoutly built, powerful boats used to tow larger vessels. Steamship era in particular.

VENUS - Roman goddess of love.

VICTUALS - Supplies for the vessel, food, spares, armament etc.  'Victualler' - The person who organises the supplies.

WAIST - The midsection of a ship, between the forecastle and the quarterdeck.

WARSHIP - Armoured vessels used in war. This is a vessel type used to describe a wreck whose exact type is not recorded. Vessels recorded as destroyer, battleship etc are not normally listed under this vessel type.

WATER-LOGGED - Filled with or saturated with water.

WEATHER & WEATHERED - Pass on the windward side of another vessel or object.

WEAR THE SHIP - Change from one tack to another, stern to wind.

WEIGH - To heave, hoist, or raise.

WEIGHED - To raise the ship from the seabed.

WEATHER SIDE - Side on which the wind blows.

WEST INDIAMAN - A vessel engaged in trade with the West Indies.

WHERRY - The term wherry was applied to various decked fishing-vessels belonging to England, Ireland, and
the Isle of Man.

WHITE WASH - Formal examination of an Officers' qualifications.

WORE - As WEAR THE SHIP above, but past tense.

YARD - A spar hoisted and retained on a mast, for attaching and extending sails, hoisting flags, lights etc.

YARDARM - The outer quarters of a yard, that part which lies outboard of the lifts on either side of the ship.  They were the positions in a square-rigged ship where most of the flag signals were hoisted.  The position where men were hung if they received punishment by death!!

YAWL or YAUL - A two-masted fore-and-aft rigged sailing boat with a short mizzen stepped far abaft of the rudder post or small undecked two-masted fishing boat or a ship’s jollyboat with usually four or six oars.

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MISCELLANEOUS

Most of the information was taken from the Collins & Oxford English Dictionaries.  Some of these words are also archaic.

ABATED - Decreased.

ABOMINABLE - Offensive, loathsome or detestable.

AFFECTING - Evoking feelings of pity or sympathy.

AFFLICTING - Deeply distressing and painful.

ALL AS ONE - Basically they would all be dead.

ALLUREMENT - To entice or tempt someone.  To attract.

AMIABLE - Friendly.  Agreeable nature.

ANNIHILATION - Total destruction.

APPARELLED - Something that covers or adorns e.g. outer garments or clothing.

APPROBATION - Official recognition/approval.

ARDENTLY - Intense desire.  Emotion.  Passionate.

ARDUOR - Feelings of great intensity and warmth.  Eagerness.

ARDUOUS - Hard to endure; harsh, e.g. arduous conditions.

ARCHAIC - Of a earlier period, not in modern use.

ARROGATE - To claim or appropriate for oneself.  To attribute or assign to another without justification.

ARTEFACT or ARTIFACT - Something made or given shape by man.

ARTIFICER - A skilled craftsman.

ASCERTAINED - Determined or discovered.

ASSIDUITY - Constant and close application; devoted attention.

AGGRANDIZEMENT - To increase the power, wealth, prestige, scope etc. OR to cause (something) to seem greater, magnify, exaggerate.

AUTHENTICITY - Of undisputed origin or authorship; genuine; accurate in representation.

BAFFLING - To perplex, bewilder or puzzle; to check, restrain or regulate.

BEGUILED - To charm, fascinate, to delude.

BENCOOLEN - A small settlement on the West Coast of Sumatra.

BENEVOLENCE - Inclination or tendency to help or do well to others; charity; act of kindness.

BENUMBED - To deaden physical feeling by cold, i.e. to be numb.

BOON - Close, special or intimate.

BRACE - A pair of pistols.

BRIMSTONE - Obsolete name for sulphur.

CAMBLETS  (or Camlets) - A cloth made of silk and wool.

CANDOUR - The quality of being open and honest; frankness; fairness; impartiality.

CARTOUCHE-BOX - A box to hold cartridges.

CHIRURGERY - Archaic, pertaining to the surgeon i.e. medical instruments.

CINERARY - A place for keeping the ashes of the dead after cremation.

CIRCUMSTANTIALLY - Fully detailed.

COERCION - Governing by or using force.

COLANDER - (CULLENDER archaic spelling).  A pan full of holes to strain vegetables etc.

CONTEMPTUOUS - Showing contempt or distain.

CONTINGENCES - A possible but not very likely event.

CONSPICUOUS - Attracting attention because of a striking quality or feature; clearly visible; obvious.

CONSTERNATION - A feeling of anxiety, dismay, dread or confusion.

CONVIVIAL - Sociable.  Friendly.

CONVULSED - To shake or agitate violently.  To undergo violent spasms.

CONEY or CONY - Rabbit i.e. fur from the rabbit.

COMMISERATION - To feel or express sympathy or compassion for something or someone.

COMPETENT FORTUNE - Polite way of saying he/she was loaded.

COSMOGRAPHY - The science dealing with the whole order of nature.

COTERIE - Small exclusive group of friends with a common interest.  Clique.

COUNTER - In a wrong direction; in a contrary direction or manner.

CROWN - Approximately five shilling (old money) or twenty five pence today.  Half a crown being half the amount.

DEFRAYED - To provide money for costs, expenses etc.

DEMEANOUR - The way a person behaves towards others.  Bearing.  Appearance.

DEPORTMENT - The manner in which a person behaves.

DICTATES - To seek to impose one's will.

DILIGENTLY - Carried out with care and perseverance.

DISAFFECTED - Having lost their loyalty.

DISDAINING - Refusing to.

DECREPIT - Enfeebled by old age or infirm.  Broken down or worn out by over use.

DESIROUS - To want to.

DISPENSATION - A religious system or code of prescriptions for life and conduct regarded as of divine origin.

DISQUIETUDE - A feeling, or state, of anxiety or uneasiness.

DISSIPATED - Wasted; scattered; exhausted.

DIWAN - Finance minister of an Indian Muslim ruler and the administrator of the state.

DOTARD - A person who is weak-minded, e.g. through senility.

EAST INDIA COMPANY - The Honourable East India Company was one of eight companies established at the end on the 16th century to exploit trade in India, the East Indies and the Far East. The other seven were set up by Holland, France, Denmark, Scotland, Spain and Austria but only the Dutch company was of any significance.

EULOGIUM - To praise (a person or thing) highly in speech or writing.

EMANCIPATED - To free from restriction or restraint; to free from the inhibitions imposed by conventional morality; to liberate (e.g. a slave) from bondage.

EMBEZZLEMENT - To convert money or property entrusted to you fraudulently to your own use.

EMBLAZONING - To make bright, splendid or colourful.

EMPHATICALLY - To stress in a forceful manner.

ENDEAVOUR - To attempt to do (or obtain) something.

ENSHROUDED - To cover or hide.

ENUMERATED - To list; to mention separately or in order one by one.

EN-SUIT - Of the same style.

ENTREATED - Implore.  To ask a person earnestly.  To beg or plead with.

EJACULATION - An abrupt emphatic utterance or exclamation.

ERE - Poetic word for 'before'.

ESTIMABLE - Deserving of admiration.  Worthy of respect.

EVANESCENT - Passing out of sight; fading away; vanishing.   Ephemeral or transitory.

EXORBITANT - Excessive.

EXPATIATING - To enlarge upon.

EXPEDIENT - Appropriate.  Suitable to the circumstances.

EXTREMITY - (Archaic - A drastic or severe measure).  Maybe 'till the last moment'?

EXULTING - Joyful, jubilant, rejoicing.

FABRICATION - To concoct a story.  To lie or invent.

FATALITY - The quality or condition of being fated i.e. dictated by fate.

FORBEARANCE - Patience.  Self control.

FORFEITED - Gave up.

FORTITUDE - Strength and firmness of mind.

FURLOUGH - Leave of absence from military duty.

GRATIFICATIONS - Rewards.

GUINEA - One pound and one shilling i.e. £1 and 5 pence.

GUM BENJAMIN - Traded by East India Co. ships.  Balsamic Resin obtained from certain tropical Asian trees of the genus STYRAX and used in perfumery and medicine.  Modern - benzoin.

HARVEY'S LIBRARY - A historically famous library which was situated on Weymouth seafront.

HEROICALLY EXPIRED - Died heroically.

HUMANITY - The quality of being human.  Kindness or mercy.

ĪLES-DE-FRANCE - Mauritius

INDELIBLE - Incapable of being erased or obliterated.

INANIMATE - Lacking any sign of life.  Appearing dead.

INCOMMODIOUSNESS - Insufficiently spacious; cramped.

INDOSTAN - Old name for Hindustan, India.

INFIRMITY - Moral flaw or failing; physical weakness or debility; being ill etc.

INCESSANTLY - Continuous.  Not ceasing.

INEFFECTUAL - An inadequate effect or having no effect.

INGULPHED variant (archaic) of ENGULFED - To immerse or swallow up.

INSCRUTABLE - Incomprehensible or mysterious.

INSOMUCH - To such an extent that.

INTREPIDLY - Fearless; daring; bold.

IMPEDIMENT - Hindrance or obstruction.

IMPERIOUS - Domineering; arrogant; overbearing.

IMPOVERISHMENT - To make poor.  To deprive.

IMPRUDENCE - Rash, heedless or indiscreet.

KEDGEREE - Down stream wharf for Calcutta.

KENNEL COAL - A smokeless high quality coal.

KNELL - The sound of a bell rung to announce a death or a funeral.

LANGUOR - Weariness. Oppressive silence or stillness.

LANTHORN - An archaic word for 'lantern'.

LAMENTABLE - Archaic word meaning 'mournful' i.e. wretched or distressing.

LAMENTED - Grieved for.

LAUDABLE - Deserving or worthy of praise; admirable; commendable.

LEADENHALL - Headquarters of the East India Company in London.

LIBERALITY - Generosity; the quality or condition of being liberal.

LUNAR SOCIETY - The 'Land and Underwater Nautical Archaeological Research' Society.

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MAGNANIMITY - Generosity.

MAGNITUDE - Most important or significant.

MANIFEST - To prove without doubt.

MEED - A recompense or reward. (Archaic word)

MELANCHOLY - A tendency to gloominess or depression.  Being sad and thoughtful.

MESSUAGE - A dwelling house and its adjacent buildings and the adjacent land used by the household.

METROPOLIS - In this situation it refers to London i.e. a big city.

MORTAL - A Being.  A life form subject to death.

MORTIFICATION - Humiliation.  Feeling of loss of prestige or self respect.

MULCTED - Fined

MUNIFICENCE - Very generous, bountiful etc.

MUTABLE - Able to or tending to change.

MUTUALLY - Together.  View shared by both.

NABOB - a European who made a fortune in the Orient, e.g. India.

NARRATIVE - An account, report or story of events or experiences.  Several small contemporary pamphlets detailing the events of the wreck are described as 'Narratives' and many are reproduced in this historical record.

NOTWITHSTANDING - Nevertheless despite these facts.

OBEISANCE - The gesture of him having to express his loyalty to the East India Company Directors.

OCCASIONED - Led to.

OSMINGTON - Small village to the East of Weymouth Bay.

OSTENSIBLE - Apparent, seeming, pretended.

OSTENTATION - False appearance.

PAMPHLET - A brief publication, often on a subject of current interest, having a paper cover.

PAROXYSM - an uncontrollable outburst of some kind.

PEASE - Archaic word for pea

PECUNIARY - Monetary

PEEVISHNESS - fretful or irritable, e.g. a peevish child.

PERTURBATION - A cause of disturbance or upset.

PHILANTHROPY - The practice of performing charitable or benevolent actions.  Love of mankind in general.

PHILOSOPHER - One who is patient and wise.  Teacher.

PLAUDITS - An expression of enthusiastic approval.

POIGNANCY - Sharply distressing or painful to the feelings.

PRECIPITATED - To throw or fall from a height.

PRECLUSIVE - To exclude or debar; to make impossible.

PREROGATIVE - An exclusive privilege/right exercised by the East India Company.

PRESENTIMENT - A sense of something about to happen.  Premonition.

PROCRASTINATING - Delay; to defer or put off an action until later.

PROCURE - Obtain something.

PROMISCUOUS -  Consisting of a number of dissimilar parts or elements mingled in a confused or indiscriminate manner; casual; heedless; indiscriminate in selection.

PROTRACTION - Delaying or prolonging something.  An extension of time.

PROVERBIALLY - Commonly or traditionally referred to.

PRUDENCE - Caution in practical/financial dealings/affairs.

PULSATION - To bring back to a state of consciousness.

RAIMENT - Clothing, attire, or garment.

RAPACIOUS - practising pillage or rapine; greedy, grasping.

RATTAN - Palm, the stems are cane.

REDOUND - To accrue or acquire wealth.  Bring.

REFRACTORY - Unmanageable, obstinate.

RELINQUISHMENT - To give up a task or struggle.  Abandon.  To release or let go.

REMONSTRANCE - Act of remonstrating.  To protest against.

REPLETE - Too much.  Copiously supplied.  Excessively satisfied.

REPUBLIC - A political or national unit possessing a form of government.

ROSIN - Also called 'Colophony'.  A translucent, brittle amber substance produced in the distillation of crude turpentine 'oleoresin' and used for making vanish.  'Oleoresin' is a semi solid mixture of a resin and essential oil obtained from certain plants.

SINGULAR - Remarkable, exceptional, extraordinary, unusual, odd, unique.

SALUTARY - As in salutary warning.  Promoting or intending to promote an improvement or beneficial effect.

SANGUINE - Cheerful and confident.  Optimistic.

SERENDIPITY - Making happy discoveries by accident.

SERRIED - Close together like a terrace of houses.

SHILLING - Twelve old pennies.  Twenty shillings to the pound.

SLOPS - May mean food for the animals?

SOJOURNED - A temporary stay.

SOLACED - Giving comfort in misery or disappointment.

SOLICITING - To make a request.  Requesting.

SOLICITOUS - Keenly anxious.  Very eager.

SOLITARY USINGS - Creative.

SPECIE - Money used for trade.  Silver and Gold, rarely used as face value, normally traded by weight.

SPRUE - A vertical channel in a mould through which the molten material is poured (and sometimes allowed to flow out) to fill the mould.  Moulded items need to have the material from these channels removed prior to use.  The marks that are left are referred to as 'sprue' marks.

STAID - Stayed.

STOLID - Showing little or no emotion/interest.

STUPENDOUS - Astounding, wonderful, huge.

SUBJOIN - To add or attach to the end of something written i.e. at the end of this narrative.

SUBLUNARY - Of or relating to the earth or world.

SUBORDINATION - Under the authority and control of the senior officers.

SUBSISTED - Continued in existence.

SUCCOUR - Help or assistance in time of difficulty.

SUMPTUOUSLY - Expensively and extravagant.

SUPERFLUOUS - Exceeding what is sufficient.  Not necessary or relevant.

SUPPLICATORY - To make a humble request to someone (in this case God);  plead;  to ask for or seek humbly.

TEMERITY - Rashness or boldness.

TEMPERATE -  Mild in quality and character.

TOLERABLE - Something which is just acceptable.  Fairly good or permissible.

TRANSPIRED - Have come to be known or have come to light.

TRAPPINGS - The accessories/adornments that characterize (or symbolize) your status in life or office.

TREMBLINGLY - An archaic term meaning 'actively involved'.

TUMULTUOUSLY - Turbulent, greatly agitated, confused, disturbed etc.

TURBULENCE - A state or condition of confusion.

UNIMPEACHED - Unquestionable as to honesty, truth etc.

WOE - Intense grief or misery.  Affliction or misfortune.

WRECKSITE or WRECK SITE - Area, generally underwater where there has been deposition of a vessel (boat or ship etc.) by calamity.

ZEALOUS - Filled with or inspired by intense enthusiasm or zeal; ardent; fervent.


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